Swedia Menjadi Negara Terkaya

Swedia Menjadi Negara Terkaya

Swedia – Swedia adalah yang terbesar dari negara-negara Skandinavia lain. Swedia adalah negara Eropa terbesar kelima setelah Rusia, Ukraina, Prancis, dan Spanyol. Swedia menempati bagian yang lebih besar dari Semenanjung Skandinavia Eropa Utara, yang berbagi tempat dengan Norwegia. Denmark, negara Skandinavia lainnya, terletak di barat daya Swedia dan merupakan bagian dari daratan Eropa. Finlandia, yang kadang-kadang dianggap sebagai negara Skandinavia, terletak di timur.

Penduduk

Orang Swedia berhubungan erat dengan orang Denmark, Islandia, Kepulauan Faeroe, Norwegia, dan orang Swedia yang berbahasa Finlandia. Mereka berasal dari beberapa migrasi suku. Beberapa orang mungkin berasal dari atau melalui Rusia ribuan tahun yang lalu. Etnis yang membentuk populasi Swedia semakin beragam dalam beberapa dekade terakhir.

Orang Finlandia adalah etnis minoritas terbesar di negara itu. Tapi ada juga banyak orang Amerika Selatan, Afrika, Timur Tengah, dan Asia. Sekitar 17.000 orang Sami tinggal di wilayah utara jauh dari Swedia yang dikenal sebagai Lapland. Orang Sami dulunya disebut Lapp. Swedia luas daerahnya, tetapi populasinya relatif kecil. Kebanyakan orang Swedia tinggal di bagian selatan negara, wilayah yang paling subur dan tempat kota-kota utama berada.

Bahasa

Bahasa Swedia adalah bahasa nasional yang terkait dengan bahasa Denmark, Faeroese, Islandia, dan Norwegia. Alfabet Swedia sama seperti yang digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris, kecuali tiga vokal ekstra: å, ä, dan ö. Banyak orang Swedia juga berbicara dalam bahasa Inggris dan Jerman. Bahasa asli etnis minoritas dilestarikan melalui program pendidikan khusus. Orang Sami berbicara salah satu dari tiga dialek bahasa juga disebut Sami.

Agama

Gereja Lutheran Injili Swedia adalah gereja negara sampai tahun 2000. Kebanyakan orang Swedia mengikutinya, tapi hanya sedikit yang menjadi anggota aktif. Sejumlah besar pemeluk Katolik Roma, Kristen Ortodoks, dan Islam tinggal di Swedia.

Sekolah dan Perpustakaan

Pendidikan sangat penting di Swedia. Hampir semua jenjang pendidikan gratis. Setelah pra-sekolah, anak-anak Swedia mulai wajib belajar sembilan tahun pada usia 7 tahun. Kemudian sebagian besar siswa melanjutkan di sekolah menengah atas pilihan mereka. Sekolah-sekolah ini menawarkan inti dasar pembelajaran di samping pelajaran akademis atau praktis.

Sekitar sepertiga dari semua siswa kemudian melanjutkan ke sekolah profesional atau universitas. Swedia memiliki lebih dari selusin universitas. Universitas Uppsala, tertua di Swedia, didirikan tahun 1477. Universitas Lund didirikan tahun 1668. Ada juga banyak sekolah kejuruan yang mempersiapkan siswa untuk keterampilan tertentu. Negara ini memiliki sistem perpustakaan yang luas. Royal Library terletak di Stockholm, ibukota.

Cara Hidup

Sebagian besar orang Swedia tinggal di kota-kota, terutama di apartemen. Orang Swedia memiliki salah satu tingkat kepemilikan komputer dan telepon seluler tertinggi di dunia. Sebagian besar keluarga memiliki beberapa televisi dan setidaknya satu mobil.

Olahraga dan Rekreasi

Orang Swedia mencintai alam bebas. Mereka menikmati hiking, camping, ski, dan olahraga air. Olahraga tim juga populer, seperti sepak bola, hoki es, dan bandy (yang menyerupai hoki es). Atlet Swedia terkenal meliputi pemain tenis Björn Borg, Stefan Edberg, dan Mats Wilander; pegolf Annika Sorenstam; petinju Ingemar Johansson, dan pesepakbola Zlatan Ibrahimovic.

Makanan dan Minuman

Swedia menikmati makanan tradisional dan juga hidangan internasional. Perairan sekitar negara menyediakan ikan yang melimpah; seafood favorit meliputi cod, salmon, dan udang. Selain daging sapi, babi, dan ayam, rusa juga populer. Cara yang umum untuk menyajikan makanan adalah smörgåsbord (yang secara harfiah berarti “meja sandwich”). Ini adalah prasmanan yang menawarkan berbagai macam makanan, termasuk roti, ikan, daging, keju, salad, dan makanan penutup. Minuman favorit adalah anggur, bir, dan aquavit (berarti “air kehidupan”). Aquavit adalah vodka yang ditambahi buah atau rempah-rempah seperti jintan atau adas.

Bentang Alam

Swedia membentang sekitar 1.600 kilometer dari selatan ke utara, dan sekitar 480 kilometer dari timur ke barat. Banyak lahan Swedia ditutupi dengan hutan. Banyak sungai dan sekitar 90.000 danau membentuk hampir sepersepuluh dari luas total. Secara geografis, Swedia dapat dibagi menjadi lima wilayah, yakni Selatan, Highland Selatan, Dataran Rendah Tengah, Utara (Norrland), dan pulau-pulau.

Selatan adalah wilayah dataran rendah subur dengan iklim terpanas di Swedia. Banyak pertanian terbaik Swedia berada di daerah ini. Malmö adalah kota utama di kawasan itu. Kota ini terletak di pantai barat daya Swedia. Di sebelah utara naik bukit-bukit Highland Selatan, yang mencapai titik tertinggi di dekat Danau Vättern. Daerah ini memiliki hutan lebat dan danau kecil dan rawa-rawa yang tak terhitung jumlahnya. Tanahnya tipis dan berbatu, membuat pertanian sulit.

Dataran Rendah Tengah membentang di tengah Swedia yang memiliki hamparan dataran luas yang bertabrakan dengan punggung bukit berhutan dan terjal serta danau biru besar. Danau terbesar di Swedia, Lake Vänern, terletak di wilayah ini. Dataran Rendah Tengah adalah jantung negara yang bersejarah. Setelah provinsi-provinsi selatan, ini adalah wilayah pertanian Swedia yang paling penting. Stockholm, ibukota dan kota terbesar Swedia, serta Göteborg, pelabuhan negara yang paling penting, terletak di wilayah tersebut.

Utara adalah wilayah luas yang membentuk hampir dua-pertiga dari luas wilayah Swedia. Daerah perbukitannya menjadi berpegunungan di sepanjang perbatasan Norwegia. Titik tertinggi di Swedia, Gunung Kebne, menjulang sampai ketinggian 2.111 meter dan terletak di Pegunungan Kolen. Dari danau glasial yang dalam di pegunungan muncul puluhan sungai deras. Mereka membentuk jeram dan air terjun yang tak terhitung jumlahnya dalam perjalanannya ke laut.

Pulau-pulau Öland dan Gotland terletak di lepas pantai timur Swedia di Laut Baltik. Daerah ini unik karena tanahnya terdiri atas batu kapur dan batu pasir, sangat berbeda dengan daratan. Pulau-pulau tidak memiliki sungai sejati dan tanahnya terlalu kering untuk bercocoktanam; banyak tanah digunakan sebagai padang rumput untuk ternak. Swedia juga memiliki dua kepulauan besar. Salah satunya adalah di sepanjang pantai barat dan timur lainnya mencapai ke Baltik dari Stockholm

Iklim

Swedia terletak di utara sejauh Alaska, tapi umumnya memiliki iklim yang lebih ringan. Hal ini karena arus air hangat Atlantik Utara mengalir di dekatnya dan angin yang bertiup dari barat daya di semua musim. Suhu musim dingin di bagian tengah dan selatan negara rata-rata sedikit di bawah titik beku. Di ujung utara, suhu musim dingin rata-rata -14 °C. Suhu musim panas sejuk, tapi nyaman. Curah hujan rata-rata sekitar 610 milimeter per tahun. Curah hujan terbesar ada di barat daya dan utara jauh. Ada hujan salju yang cukup di musim dingin.

Sumber Daya Alam

Hanya sekitar 7 persen lahan Swedia yang cocok untuk pertanian. Sumber daya alam negara yang paling berharga adalah kandungan mineral, hutan, dan sungai. Mineral Swedia yang paling penting adalah bijih besi. Bijih besi sangat penting untuk industri besi, baja, mesin, dan pembuatan kapal. Mineral ini juga diekspor. Deposit mineral lainnya adalah seng, timah, tembaga, perak, dan uranium.

Hutan Swedia, terutama cemara dan pinus, menyediakan bahan baku untuk kayu, pulp kayu, dan industri kertas. Swedia tidak memiliki minyak bumi dan batubara hampir tidak ada. Tapi sungai yang mengalir deras dimanfaatkan untuk pembangkit listrik tenaga air. Di pantai barat, tenaga angin menjadi semakin penting dalam menghasilkan listrik.

Ekonomi

Pada akhir tahun 1900-an, perekonomian Swedia masih didominasi pertanian. Industrialisasi yang pesat dimulai setelah sekitar tahun 1870 dan menjadi sangat penting di sepanjang tahun 1900-an. Hal ini menjadikan Swedia sebagai salah satu negara dengan standar hidup tertinggi di dunia.

Jasa

Hari Swedia memiliki apa yang disebut sebagai ekonomi pasca-industri. Program pemerintah sosial, jasa komersial dan ritel, pendidikan, dan pariwisata membentuk hampir 70 persen dari perekonomian.

Manufaktur

Sekitar seperlima dari angkatan kerja bekerja di bidang manufaktur. Manufaktur terkemuka meliputi logam dan produk logam; mesin industri; dan produk teknologi tinggi. Produk yang berasal dari Swedia dan dikenal di seluruh dunia adalah mobil Volvo dan Saab, pesawat Saab, dan ponsel Ericsson.

Pertanian, Kehutanan, dan Perikanan

Kurang dari 5 persen dari angkatan kerja bergerak di bidang pertanian. Peternakan Swedia sangat mekanik dan memasok sebagian besar kebutuhan barley, gandum, gula bit, daging, dan susu negara. Swedia juga mengekspor beberapa produk makanan dan pertanian, seperti keju, lingonberry (semacam cranberry kecil dan manis), kopi, cokelat, dan vodka.

Kayu, bubur kayu, kertas, dan produk kertas penting untuk perekonomian Swedia selama beberapa dekade. Peralatan presisi dan barang-barang teknologi tinggi saat ini telah menggantikan produk-produk penting tersebut sebagai komoditas ekspor. Garis pantai Swedia yang panjang telah membuat perikanan menjadi kegiatan ekonomi tradisional, meskipun tidak sepenting di masa lalu. Sebagian besar hasil tangkapan dikonsumsi di dalam negeri, tetapi beberapa ikan kaleng diekspor.

Pertambangan

Swedia telah menjadi produsen penting bijih besi bermutu tinggi sejak Abad Pertengahan. Hari ini, pusat industri pertambangan didasarkan pada tambang terbuka besar di Kiruna di utara jauh. Selain memasok industri sendiri, Swedia mengekspor bijih besi dalam jumlah besar, terutama untuk negara-negara industri Eropa Barat.

Energi

Karena kurangnya minyak bumi dan batubara, pengembangan industri awal Swedia bergantung pada bahan bakar impor dan tenaga air untuk menghasilkan listrik. PLTA sekarang menyediakan lebih dari setengah dari total energi Swedia. Untuk mengurangi ketergantungan impor, Swedia memulai program tenaga nuklir pada 1970-an. Pada pertengahan 1980-an, listrik tenaga air dan nuklir memasok hampir semua kebutuhan energi Swedia. Pada tahun 1980, masalah keamanan menyebabkan referendum nasional dan rencana untuk menutup pembangkit nuklir Swedia. Tapi hanya satu yang dinonaktifkan. Sampai sumber energi alternatif dikembangkan, PLTN Swedia akan tetap penting

Transportasi

Sistem transportasi di Swedia berkembang dengan baik. Jaringan kereta api menghubungkan sebagian besar negara; kereta api berkecepatan tinggi menjalankan beberapa rute utama, seperti antara Stockholm dan Göteborg. Sistem jalan raya dan layanan udara dalam dan luar negeri Swedia juga berkembang dengan baik; bandara internasional utama meliputi Arlanda, di Stockholm, dan Göteborg-Landvetter, dekat Göteborg. Pada bulan Juli 2000, Jembatan Oresund dibuka, menghubungkan Swedia dan Denmark dan menyempurnakan jaringan wisata berbasis darat yang membentang dari Skandinavia utara jauh ke Italia selatan.

Komunikasi

Swedia adalah pemimpin dalam hal teknologi informasi, berdasarkan penelitian pada penggunaan komputer pribadi, internet, dan telepon nirkabel. Negara ini juga memimpin dalam sistem telekomunikasi, kebebasan pers, dan tingkat pendidikan. Ada sekitar 170 stasiun televisi dan sekitar 270 stasiun radio. Di Stockholm, surat kabar harian yang paling banyak dibaca adalah Dagens Nyheter dan Expressen.

Kota-kota Besar

Stockholm adalah ibu kota dan kota terbesar, serta pusat komersial, industri, dan budaya Swedia. Terletak di pantai timur negara itu, Stockholm dibangun di pulau-pulau serta bagian dari daratan. Populasi kota ini lebih dari 900.000 orang. Karena banyaknya saluran air, Stockholm sering disebut Venesia dari Utara. Stockholm didirikan pada pertengahan 1200-an dan menjadi ibukota pada tahun 1523.

Göteborg merupakan pelabuhan laut di Kattegat, lengan Laut Utara, di mulut Sungai Göta. Ini adalah kota terbesar kedua di Swedia dengan populasi lebih dari 500.000 orang. Göteborg didirikan pada awal 1600-an. Ini adalah pusat untuk pembuatan kapal, mesin, manufaktur mobil, dan pendidikan. Malmö adalah bagian dari wilayah ekonomi, budaya, dan pendidikan yang berkembang yang mencakup ibukota Denmark, Kopenhagen. Ini adalah kota terbesar ketiga di Swedia, dengan populasi sekitar 300.000 jiwa.

Warisan Budaya

Sastra

Swedia telah melahirkan banyak tokoh penting bagi dunia sastra. August Strindberg merevolusi drama dengan drama seperti The Father (1887), Miss Julie (1888), dan The Ghost Sonata (1907). Pär Lagerkvist adalah seorang penyair dan novelis serta dramawan. Selma Lagerlöf, paling dikenal untuk novelnya Gösta Berling (1891), adalah orang pertama (dan wanita pertama) yang memenangkan Nobel di bidang sastra, pada tahun 1909. Pencipta Hadiah Nobel, Alfred Nobel, adalah seorang industrialis Swedia. Penulis Astrid Lindgren terkenal karena buku anak-anaknya, Pippi Longstocking (1945).

Musik

Dalam musik, dua komponis terkemuka Swedia adalah Franz Berwald dan Hugo Alfven. Beberapa penyanyi Swedia telah mendapatkan ketenaran internasional dalam opera, seperti Jenny Lind (disebut Swedish Nightingale) di tahun 1800-an dan Birgit Nilsson, Jussi Björling, dan Nicolai Gedda di tahun 1900-an. Kelompok musik rock Swedia yang terkenal ABBA, salah satu band paling laris di dunia, pertama kali menjadi populer pada 1970-an.

Seni

Pelukis berbakat muncul di Swedia pada tahun 1600-an, seperti David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl. Seniman besar dari tahun 1700-an adalah CG Pilo, Alexander Roslin, dan JT Sergel. Tokoh utama di tahun 1800-an dan 1900-an adalah pelukis Anders Zorn dan Carl Larsson serta pematung Carl Milles. Swedia juga membantu mengembangkan gaya desain modern Skandinavia, ditandai dengan garis dan fungsionalitas yang bersih; contohnya dapat dilihat pada furnitur Carl Malmsten, gelas Orrefors, dan keramik Gustavsberg.

Film

Di antara sutradara film Swedia yang paling terkenal adalah Ingmar Bergman, Victor Sjostrom, dan Mauritz Stiller. Aktor terkenal Greta Garbo, Ingrid Bergman, dan Max von Sydow memulai karir mereka di Swedia.

Pemerintah

Swedia telah menjadi monarki konstitusional sejak tahun 1809. Raja adalah kepala negara. Tapi, di bawah konstitusi yang mulai berlaku pada tahun 1975, tugas raja hanya bersifat seremonial. Raja saat ini, Raja Charles XVI Gustav, naik tahta pada tahun 1973. Otoritas eksekutif terletak pada perdana menteri, yang merupakan kepala pemerintahan dan pemimpin kabinet menteri. Perdana menteri dan kabinet bertanggung jawab kepada badan legislatif, Riksdag, yang terdiri atas 349 anggota yang dipilih untuk masa jabatan 4 tahun. Ketua Riksdag mencalonkan perdana menteri, yang kemudian harus disetujui oleh keanggotaan penuh dari badan legislatif.

Tujuh partai politik memiliki wakil di parlemen Swedia; partai-partai lain berpartisipasi dalam pemilihan umum. Partai terbesar, Demokrat Sosial, telah memegang kekuasaan sejak awal tahun 1930-an, kecuali untuk periode antara tahun 1976-1982 dan 1991-1994, ketika negara itu diperintah oleh koalisi non-Sosialis. Swedia memiliki tradisi panjang pemerintahan lokal sendiri. Negara ini dibagi menjadi 21 county dan 290 kotamadya, yang semuanya memiliki otoritas atas masalah-masalah lokal.

Cabang yudisial memiliki tiga tingkat: pengadilan lokal, enam pengadilan banding regional, dan Mahkamah Agung. Hakim Mahkamah Agung dipilih oleh pemerintah. Negara ini tidak menggunakan juri dalam persidangan. Orang Swedia bisa berpaling kepada jaringan pejabat yang disebut ombudsman untuk menyuarakan keprihatinan tentang pelanggaran politik atau hukum, penipuan konsumen, praktek ketenagakerjaan yang tidak adil, dan diskriminasi etnis.

Negara : Swedia
Ibukota : Stockholm
Area : 450.295 km2
Populasi : 9.816.666 Jiwa
Bahasa : Swedia
Pemimpin Negara : Carl XVI Gustaf
Waktu : (CET)(UTC+2)
Kode Tlp : +46
Mata Uang : Krona Swedia

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  43. ROB DRAPER AT THE NOU CAMP: The greatest trick Antonio Conte ever pulled was the transformation of Chelsea’s defence.  Chelsea’s organised collective of last season looked anarchic at times against Barcelona… defensive errors were stark at the Nou Camp

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