Profil Lengkap Negara Amerika Serikat

Profil Lengkap Negara Amerika Serikat

Amerika Serikat – Amerika Serikat (United States of America) terdiri atas 50 negara bagian dan beribu kota di Washington DC. Berdasarkan letak astronomisnya Amerika Serikat terletak antara LU-53° LS dan 11° BB-172° BB. Luas Amerika Serikat +9.363.487 km2 dengan batas sebagai berikut:

1. di sebelah utara Amerika Serikat berbatasan dengan negara Kanada;
2. di sebelah timur Amerika Serikat berbatasan dengan Samudra Atlantik;
3. di sebelah selatan Amerika Serikat berbatasan dengan Meksiko,
4. di sebelah barat Amerika Serikat berbatasan dengan Samudra Pasifik.

A. Keadaan Alam

Di bagian barat Amerika Serikat terdapat Pegunungan Rocky, Pegunungan Sierra Nevada, dan Pegunungan Cassade di pantai barat. Rocky Mountain merupakan wilayah paling kering di Amerika Serikat. Di sebelah barat Pegunungan Cassade dan Sierra Nevada terdapat beberapa lembah yang subur, di antaranya, adalah Lembah Sacramento di California.

Di Pegunungan Sierra Nevada tumbuh kayu terbesar di dunia yang bernama Red Wood dan terdapat taman nasional Jeram Yosemite. Dataran tinggi penting di Amerika Serikat, antara lain,

Dataran Tinggi Great Basin atau Great Plains dan Dataran Tinggi Plato Colorado. Di Dataran Tinggi Colorado mengalir Sungai Colorado. Akibat kikisan Sungai Colorado terbentuldah Grand Canyon (ngarai besar) yang dalamnya mencapai 2.000 m dengan panjang 350 km. Di Great Basin terdapat Great Salt Lake (danau garam besar). Kadar garam danau itu mencapai 22%. Kecuali itu, di tempat itu terdapat Death Valley yang merupakan depresi kontinental.

Di bagian timur Amerika Serikat terbentang luas dataran Atlantik. Dataran pantai utara dan pantai selatan dibatasi Pegunungan Appalachia yang membentang sepanjang 3.200 km. Pegunungan Appalachia merupakan pegunungan tua. Ujung selatan Pegunungan Appalachia disebut Pegunungan Allegheny. Bagian utara Amerika Serikat merupakan kawasan Alaska yang terdiri atas Samudra Arktik dan Pegunungan Brooks.

Di kawasan Alaska bagian selatan terdapat Pegunungan Alaska yang bersambung dengan Pegunungan Aleat dan Semenanjung Alaska. Di wilayah itu terdapat Gunung Mc. Kinley yang merupakan gunung tertinggi di Amerika Utara.

B. Budaya

Amerika Serikat memiliki kebudayaan yang tinggi mutunya. Amerika Serikat banyak melahirkan tokoh ilmuwan. sastrawan, pemikir, musikus, dan lain-lain. Dengan pengetahuan yang tinggi Amerika Serikat dapat mendeteksi bumi. Hasil deteksi terse-but sangat bermanfaat bagi pengembangan pengetahuan dan teknologi. Di tingkat dunia Amerika Serilat memiliki prestasi dalam berbagai cabang Olahra-ga, seperti atletik, basket. renant tinju, dan tenis lapangan.

C. Perekonomian

1) Pertanian

Pertanian Amerika Serikat sangat maju karena faktor pendorong sebagai
berikut:

  • Sebagian besar tanah Amerika Serikat datar dan subur dan terdiri atas tanah lossihitam dan tanah berwarna sawo matang yang banyak mengandung humus.
  • Iklim kontinental yang terdapat di Amerika Serikat baik untuk kegiatan pertanian. khususnya untuk menanam gandum.
  • Pemerintah membantu/mensubsidi petani dengan alat-alat pertanian modern dan tenaga ahli.
  • Pertanian di Amerika Serikat mempunyai sifat-sifat khusus yang monokultur, yaitu hanya menanam satu macam tanaman, tetapi diselenggarakan secara modern.

Daerah penanaman gandum terdapat di bagian utara dan tengah Dataran Mississippi. Pabrik tepung terdapat di Chicago, St. Paul New York, dan Minneapolis. Tanaman jagung ditanam di sebelah selatan sampai di Sungai Ohio. Daerah penanaman jagung disebut Corn Belt. Daerah penanaman gandum disebut Wheat Belt dan terletak di sebelah tenggara dan sekitar Teluk Meksiko.

2) Peternakan

Peternakan Amerika Serikat sangat maju. Peternakan ditangani dan diolah sangat intensif. Ternak yang dipelihara adalah unggas dan lembu. Tempat penyembe-lihan hewan ternak terdapat di Chicago dan St Louis. Daerah lembu perahan terdapat di bagian timur laut, biri-biri di daerah Prairi dan daerah pegunungan.

3) Pertambangan

Hasil tambang Amerika cukup banyak, misalnya sebagai berikut.

  • Pertambangan emas terdapat di California, Dakota Selatan, dan Colorado (Denser).
  • Pertambangan perak terdapat di Utah, Arizona, dan Montana.
  • Pertambangan belerang terdapat di muara Sungai Mississippi.
  • Minyak bumi ditambang di California, Texas, Oklahoma, dan Pennsylvania.
  • Batu bara ditambang di daerah sebelah barat Pegunungan Allegheny, sebelah selatan Chicago, sebelah utara dan selatan Kansas City.
  • Pertambangan bauksit terdapat di Arkansas.
  • Pertambangan bijih besi terdapat di sebelah barat Danau Superior di Pegunungan Allegheny.
  • Pertambangan tembaga terdapat di bagian utara, yaitu sekitar Great Salt Lake. Montana, dan Arizona.

4) Perindustrian

Perindustrian Amerika Serikat maju dengan pesat karena hal-hal sebast.al berikut.

  • Amerika Serikat kaya bahan mentah, hasil tambang, dan sumber tenaga.
  • Penduduk Amerika Serikat mempunyai keuletan dan pandai berorganisasi.
  • Amerika Serikat memiliki teknologi maju.
  • Amerika Serikat mempunyai tenaga ahli dan modal yang memadai.

Macam-macam industri di Amerika Serikat adalah sebagai berikut.

  • Industri mesin pertanian terdapat di Chicago.
  • Industri sutra terdapat di Boston, New York, dan negara bagian California.
  • Industri lokomotif dan mobil (Ford dan Dodge) terdapat di Detroit.
  • Industri wol terdapat di New York.
  • Industri tembaga terdapat di Pittsburgh, Buffalo, dan Cleveland.
  • Industri tembaga terdapat di Anaconda (daerah bagian Montana). Industri itu merupakan industri terbesar di dunia.
  • Industri galangan kapal terdapat di New York, Boston, dan San Fransisco.
  • Industri pesawat terbang terdapat di Los Angeles dan Seattle.

D. Penduduk

Jumlah penduduk Amerika Serikat pada tahun 1993 sebanyak 258.233.000 jiwa dengan pertumbuhan penduduk 1,1% setiap tahun. Hal-hal yang menyangkut penduduk Amerika Serikat adalah sebagai berikut.

Penduduk asli Amerika Serikat adalah bangsa Eskimo dan Indian. Kedua banzsa itu termasuk rumpun bangsa Mongol.
Penduduk pendatang Amerika Serikat adalah bangsa kulit putib tgy, terthri atas Amerika Anglo, Amerika Spanyol, Amerika Portugis. penduckik Haiti. dan pen-duduk daerah jajahan Belanda. Inggris, dan Prancis: bampia lit hitam (bangsa Negro); bangsa Mongol. Tionghoa. dan Jepang.
Penduduk campuran terdiri atas bangsa. Mestizo agnan bangsa kulit putih dengan penduduk Indian). bangsa Mullatto keturunan bangsa Negro dengan bangsa kulit putih), dan bangsa Zambo (keturninan bangsa. Negro dengan orang Indian).

Sebagian besar penduduk Amerika Serikat menganut agama Protestan. Bahasa nasional Amerika Serikat adalah bahasa Di Amerika Serikat wajib belajar dilaksanakan sampai usia 16-18 tahun. Lama pendidikan dasar Amerika Serikat adalah 12 tahun.

E. Bentuk Pemerintahan

Amerika Serikat adalah negara republik yang mempunyai parlemen bicomeral. Kekuasaan tertinggi Amerika Serikat dipegang oleh kongres yang terdiri atas Senate yang beranggotakan wakil negara bagian dan House of Representatives (wakil-wakil wilayah yang dipilih oleh warga negara bagian). Kekuasaan eksekutif Amerika Serikat berada di tangan presiden yang dipilih empat tahun sekali.

Negara : Amerika Serikat
Ibukota : Washington, D.C.
Area : 9.826.675 km2 km2
Populasi : 321.034.355 Jiwa
Bahasa :
Pemimpin Negara : Donald Trump
Waktu : (UTC-5)
Kode Tlp : +1
Mata Uang : Dolar Amerika Serikat

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